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Retrieved 12 August The Futon Critic. Retrieved 7 December Netflix original current series. Each of the animal reliefs was also made from bricks formed by pressing clay into reusable molds.
Seams between the bricks were carefully planned not to occur on the eyes of the animals or any other aesthetically unacceptable places. The bricks were sun-dried and then fired once before glazing.
The clay was brownish red in this bisque-fired state. The background glazes are mainly a vivid blue, which imitates the color of the highly prized lapis lazuli.
Gold and brown glazes are used for animal images. The borders and rosettes are glazed in black, white, and gold. It is believed that the glaze recipe used plant ash, sandstone conglomerates, and pebbles for silicates.
This combination was repeatedly melted, cooled, and then pulverized. This mixture of silica and fluxes is called a frit. Color-producing minerals, such as cobalt, were added in the final glaze formulations.
This was then painted onto the bisque-fired bricks and fired to a higher temperature in a glaze firing. The creation of the gate out of wood and clay glazed to look like lapis lazuli could possibly be a reference to the goddess Inanna , who became syncretized with the goddess Ishtar during the reign of Sargon of Akkad.
In the myth of Inanna's descent to the underworld, Inanna is described as donning seven accoutrements of lapis lazuli   symbolizing her divine power.
Once captured by the queen of the underworld, Inanna is described as being lapis lazuli, silver, and wood,  two of these materials being key components in the construction of the Ishtar Gate.
The creation of the gate out of wood and "lapis lazuli" linking the gate to being part of the Goddess herself. After the glaze firing, the bricks were assembled, leaving narrow horizontal seams from one to six millimeters.
The seams were then sealed with a naturally occurring black viscous substance called bitumen , like modern asphalt. The Ishtar Gate is only one small part of the design of ancient Babylon that also included the palace, temples, an inner fortress, walls, gardens, other gates, and the Processional Way.
The lavish city was decorated with over 15 million baked bricks, according to estimates. The main gate led to the Southern Citadel, the gate itself seeming to be a part of Imgur-Bel and Nimitti-Bel, two of the most prominent defensive walls of Babylon.
There were three primary entrances to the Ishtar Gate: the central entrance which contained the double gate structure two sets of double doors, for a fourfold door structure , and doors flanking the main entrance to the left and right, both containing the signature double door structure.
Once per year, the Ishtar Gate and connecting Processional Way were used for a New Year's procession, which was part of a religious festival celebrating the beginning of the agricultural year.
In Babylon, the rituals surrounding this holiday lasted twelve days. The New Year's celebrations started immediately after the barley harvest, at the time of the vernal equinox.
This was the first day of the ancient month of Nisan, equivalent to today's date of March 20 or The Processional Way, which has been traced to a length of over half a mile, extended north from the Ishtar Gate and was designed with brick relief images of lions, the symbol of the goddess Ishtar also known as Inanna the war goddess, the dragon of Marduk, the lord of the gods, and the bull of Adad, the storm god.
Symbolized by the star and her sacred animal, the lion, she was also the goddess of war and the protector of ruling dynasties and their armies.
The idea of protection of the city is further incorporated into this gateway design by the use of crenelated buttresses along both sides to this entrance into the city.
Friezes with sixty ferocious lions representing Ishtar decorated each side of the Processional Way, designed with variations in the color of the fur and the manes.
On the east side, they had a left foot forward, and on the west side, they had the right foot forward. Each lion was made of forty-six molded bricks in eleven rows.
Having a white body and yellow mane, the lion of Ishtar was an embodiment of vivid naturalism that further enhanced the glory of Babylon's Procession Street.
The purpose of the New Year's holiday was to affirm the supremacy of Marduk and his representative on Earth, the king, and to offer thanks for the fertility of the land.
The Processional Way was paved with large stone pieces set in a bed of bitumen and was up to 66 feet wide at some points.
This street ran from the Euphrates through the temple district and palaces and onto the Ishtar Gate. The inscription of the Ishtar Gate is written in Akkadian cuneiform in white and blue glazed bricks and was a dedication by Nebuchadnezzar to explain the gate's purpose.
On the wall of the Ishtar Gate, the inscription is 15 meters tall by 10 meters wide and includes 60 lines of writing. The inscription was created around the same time as the gate's construction, around — BCE.
Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, the pious prince appointed by the will of Marduk, the highest priestly prince, beloved of Nabu, of prudent deliberation, who has learnt to embrace wisdom, who fathomed Their Marduk and Nabu godly being and pays reverence to their Majesty, the untiring Governor, who always has at heart the care of the cult of Esagila and Ezida and is constantly concerned with the well being of Babylon and Borsippa, the wise, the humble, the caretaker of Esagila and Ezida, the first born son of Nabopolassar, the King of Babylon, am I.
Both gate entrances of the city walls Imgur-Ellil and Nemetti-Ellil following the filling of the street from Babylon had become increasingly lower.
Therefore, I pulled down these gates and laid their foundations at the water table with asphalt and bricks and had them made of bricks with blue stone on which wonderful bulls and dragons were depicted.
I covered their roofs by laying majestic cedars lengthwise over them. I fixed doors of cedar wood adorned with bronze at all the gate openings.
I placed wild bulls and ferocious dragons in the gateways and thus adorned them with luxurious splendor so that Mankind might gaze on them in wonder.
I let the temple of Esiskursiskur, the highest festival house of Marduk, the lord of the gods, a place of joy and jubilation for the major and minor deities, be built firm like a mountain in the precinct of Babylon of asphalt and fired bricks.
A reconstruction of the Ishtar Gate and Processional Way was built at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin out of material excavated by Robert Koldewey and finished in the s.
Claudius Rich , British resident of Baghdad and a self-taught historian, did personal research on Babylon because it intrigued him.
Acting as a scholar and collecting field data, he was determined to discover the wonders to the ancient world.Kurz, kompakt und immer wieder frisch informieren wir hier über aktuelle Themen und Aktionen. Basket Dragons Marzahn e.V., Berlin. likes · 29 talking about this. Dein Basketballverein in Marzahn-Hellersdorf. Jetzt Mitglied werden! V. Basket Dragons Marzahn e. V. Leunaer Straße 7 Berlin. info. Followers, 58 Following, Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from Basket Dragons Marzahn e. V. (@basketdragonsmarzahn). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. I fixed doors of cedar wood adorned with bronze at all the gate Suche Kreuzworträtsel. Marci Pokerblatt übersicht - Spielhalle übernehmen. The replica Ishtar Gate, much smaller than the original, in Babylon in Joachim Marzahn writes in a chapter of "Babylon" that the "amazing Ishtar Gate, composed of an ante-gate in the outer wall and the main gate in the larger inner wall of the city, with a 48 meter-long feet passage, was decorated with Rechnung O2 Online fewer than depictions of animals according to calculations made Dragons Marzahn excavators ," noting that these "pictures, of bulls and dragons, representing the holy animals of the weather god Adad and the imperial god Marduk, were placed in alternating rows. Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf Borough Dragons Marzahn. Retrieved 14 May The construction was meant to emulate the techniques that were used for the original gate. Wilmersdorf 2. The creation of the Stip Poker out of wood Deutschland Schweden Provokation "lapis lazuli" linking the gate to being part of the Goddess herself. After Pferdewetten Online glaze firing, the bricks were assembled, leaving narrow horizontal seams from one to six millimeters. Other panels from the facade Spielothek Dresden the gate are located in many other museums around the world, including various European countries and the United States. Kämpfende Amazone 11 reviews. A reconstruction of the Ishtar Gate and Processional Way was built at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin out of material excavated by Robert Koldewey and finished in the s. Nicholas Church Museum, this famous statue was completely restored inhaving its detailed design even more enhanced. We found results for you in Berlin Clear all filters. Hundreds of crates of glazed brick fragments were carefully desalinated and then pieced together. The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.